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University of California Berkeley 



Reprinted from the AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST (N. s.) Vol. 22, No. 4, 
October-December, 1920 


[Reprinted from the AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST, Vol. 22, No. 4, Oct.-Dec., 1920.] 



SEVERAL years ago the writer undertook, at the suggestion of 
Dr. Hewett, to collect the old Indian place names of the region 
about Santa Fe, New Mexico. Several hundred names of 
places were obtained by interviewing Indian and Spanish-speaking 
inhabitants and many of the localities were actually visited in com 
pany with one or more of the informants. 1 The present paper 
discusses in concise form the most important of these place names. 
Besides being of great local interest to the people of New Mexico, 
the place names throw certain light on the archaeology of the region 
and also on the subject of primitive geographical nomenclature in 


ABIQUIU [3:36]. 

The original Tewa designation of this quaint Mexican town, 
which lies on the west bank of the.Chama river eighteen miles 
above its confluence with the Rio Grande, is Phesu'u, literally 
"timber point" (phe, stick of wood, timber; su'u, point of land, 
projecting point of hill or mesa, horizontally projecting end or 
point of any long object). What the name means is perfectly 
clear, yet why it was originally applied no Tewa knows. Either a 
former point of land with timber on it or a single projecting stick of 
timber was doubtless the originating landmark. The early Mexican 
colonists promptly corrupted Phesu'u into Abiquiu, the pronuncia 
tion of which does not differ as widely from the Tewa form as 
Spanish orthography might suggest. The present town stands 
almost on the site of the ancient pueblo, the Indian population of 
which gradually became Mexicanized and blended with the Mexican 

1 The results are published in the writer's paper entitled " The Ethnogeography of 
the Tewa Indians," Twenty-ninth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 
Washington, 1916, to which the reference numbers in brackets, given in the present 
paper, refer. 


34 2 AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST [N. s., 22, 1920 

settlers and with a considerable number of Indian captives, mostly 
of the Hopi tribe, who were settled there by the Mexicans. Because 
of these captives, Abiquiu has long been known also by a second 
name among the Tewa, namely Khoso'o n i7-'o n 77wi n , Hopi town 
(Khoso'o 11 ?;, Hopi Indian, literature a nickname, 'big leggings'; 
'o n r/wi n , pueblo). 

Tewa traditions still tell of the time when great Indian fiestas 
were held at Abiquiu, attended by people from far and near. It 
was only a generation ago that the pa n r?are, baile de los cautivos 
(pa n ?7, captive; Sare, dance) was discontinued there. This dance 
was given out of doors in the night time and Tewa, Mexican, and 
Hopi inhabitants participated. The Abiquiu of today, however, is 
merely a quaint old Mexican town which has lost both its Indian 
customs and Indian speech. 

It follows from the descriptive nature of the nomenclature of 
places that two or more will frequently be found having the same 
name. It was by mere chance that the writer's San Ildefonso infor 
mants told of a second PhesVu, a locality in the wild mesa lands 
south of San Ildefonso. This southern PhesVu is a barren mesa 
top, seldom visited and known to few persons a mute inglorious 
Hampton as compared with its famous namesake. 

Abiquiu has been christened in Span. Santo Tomas de Abiquiu. 


This is the pointed peak twelve miles southwest of Abiquiu, 
11,240 feet high according to Wheeler's measurements. A. F. 
Bandelier refers to it as "the pyramid of the extinct volcano of 
Abiquiu." 1 The Tewa name is Su n p'i n ?7, cicada mountain (su n , 
cicada; p'i n r/, mountain). 

ACOMA [29:118] 

The universal Keres name for the pueblo is Ak'o, of obscure 
etymology, first recorded by Father Marcos de Niza in 1539 as 
"Acus." 2 The form Acoma is from Keresan Ak'omae, Acoma 
people (mse, people). 

1 A. F. Bandelier, Final Report, pt. 11, p. 32, 1892. 
1 Niga (1539) in Hakluyt, Voy., vol. in, p. 440, 1600. 



Ancho canyon is the next large canyon north of Frijoles canyon, 
and it, and not Frijoles canyon, is the bean canyon of the Tewa, the 
native form being Tunavahu'u (tu, bean; nava, field; hu'u, canyon). 
For the Tewa name of Frijoles canyon see below. 

The latter part of this name happens to consist of the combina 
tion of nouns, navahu'u, field canyon, which probably gave rise 
to the tribal name Navajo. 1 Nava means a cultivated field, Span, 
siembra, and navahu'u, is applied to any arroyo or canyon where 
the people raise crops. There are many such arroyos in the rugged 
Navajo country, and it is likely that Navajo is a corruption of this 
descriptive Tewa term. The Tewa, however, have a distinct name 
for the Navajo, namely Wa n nsave, Jemez Apache (Wa n ry, Jemez 
Indian; Save, Apache). The association of the Jemez and Navajo 

is well known. 


The Arroyo Hondo near Taos is known to the Tewa as Ko n - 
buts'i'i, barranco dell canyon (ko n , barranco; bu'u, dell; ts'i'i, 
canyon). The Taos have for it a less patently descriptive name: 
P'ats'iyuhaaluna, water cicada arroyo (p'a, water; ts'iyu, cicada; 

haaluna, arroyo). 

BLACK MESA [18:19] 

The great mesa of black basalt which stands a couple of miles 
north of San Ildefonso and which is believed by the Indians to have 
been anciently the house of a cannibal giant, is called in Tewa 
Thu n ?7yo, very spotted (thu n ry, spotted; yo, augmentative). The 
name is old and the Indians are not sure why it was given, but infor 
mants have suggested that it was probably applied because of the 
great green blotches on the northern precipices of the mesa, above 
the giant's cave. It is by this cave that the giant used to enter the 
interior chambers of the mesa which were his dwelling place. 


Just as Thu n ?7yo stands north of San Ildefonso, another gigantic 
black basalt mesa rears itself to the south of the village and almost 

1 See E. L. Hewett, American Anthropologist, N. s., vol. vm, p. 193, 1906. 

344 AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST [x. s., 22, 1920 

equally distant. This southern rival of Thu n Tjyo is called Suma, 
a very old name the meaning of which has become forgotten. 
It is because of its situation between Thu^yo and Suma that the 
Navajo have dubbed San Ildefonso picturesquely Ts6 Tti Kmne", 
houses between the rocks. 1 


Callamongue is a Mexican hamlet on the east bank of Tesuque 
creek between Pojoaque and Tesuque. The old Tewa village 
ruin of K'uyemuge, from which the hamlet takes its name, lies 
half a mile west, across the creek. The ruin is on a mesa top and its 
name, which means 'where they hurled down stones' (k'u, stone; 
yemu, to throw pi.; ge, loc.), gives a glimpse of some defense in the 
long forgotten past. 


This eastern tributary of the Chama has a Tewa name equivalent 
in meaning to the Spanish: pae n se n T?hu'u, deer horn creek (pae n , deer; 
se 11 ?;, horn; hu'u, arroyo). In this and numerous similar instances, 
in which Indian and Spanish names are exact equivalents in meaning 
we have no means of determining whether the name was started by 
Spanish or Indian speakers. 

CANOA MESA [13:1] 

San Juan also has its great black basalt mesa, larger and higher 
than Thu n r7yo, though less imposing. This great block of basalt 
lies on the west side of the Rio Grande, north of the confluence 
with the Chama, and has its lower end opposite San Juan pueblo. 
To Mexican fancy it is shaped like a gigantic canoe and is known 
as the Mesa de la Canoa. The Tewa have for it however a very 
matter-of-fact name as compared with the old and mystical names 
Thu n ?7yo and Suma, namely: Tsi n kwaye, basalt mesa (tsi n , basalt; 

kwaye, height). 

CAPULIN (p. 116) 

Capulin, meaning in Spanish 'chokecherry,' has its Tewa coun 
terpart: 'Ave'iwe, chokecherry place ('ave, chokecherry; 'iwe, loc.). 
Here again, we cannot determine which was the original. 

1 Curtis, American Indian, vol. I, p. 138, 1907. 



The great mountain northwest of Abiquiu and across the Chama 
river from it, is called in Spanish Cerro de los Burros, for wild burros 
were formerly abundant there. The Tewa name on the other 
hand tells of the good pinones which were there gathered : T'omayop- 
'i n ?7, good pinon mountain (t'o, pinon; mayo, excellent; p'i n r;, 


CHAMA [5:7] 

The writer was guided by San Juan Indians to the old pueblo 
ruin of Tsa n ma n , which has given the name to both the Chama river 
and to Chamita hamlet. Tsa n ma n ruin occupies a low mesa on the 
eastern bank of the Chama river, a mile and a half southeast of 
the mouth of El Rito creek and fully ten miles northwest of its 
linguistic offspring Chamita. The name is said to mean 'where 
they wrestled' (tsa n ma n , to have wrestled). Tsa n ma n must once 
have been an important pueblo, but had been forgotten until it 
was known to no whites and to but few Tewa, although its name 
lived on, its origin quite unknown, generalized to cover the whole 
Chama river, and again in specialized Spanish diminutive form as 
Chamita. Father Zarate-Salmeron writes Zama, 1 the other early 
records all show Chama. Apparently at the time of these records 
the name had already become extended in Spanish to apply to the 
whole Chama region and river. 

CHAMA RIVER (Large Features 12] 

But among the Tewa Tsa n ma n is applied only to the locality of 
the pueblo ruin. The Chama river is in Tewa P'op'i n r;, red river 
(p'o, water, river; p'i n ?7 for p'i'i 11 ^: p'i, red; 'i n ?7, gender postfix). 
The Rio Grande is frequently red for miles below the confluence 
because of the water discharged by the Chama. Bandelier learned 
that the Chama in turn gets its red water from Coyote creek [i 129] : 
"The branches of which the Chama is formed are the Coyote [i 129] in 
the west, the Gallinas [i 124] north of west, and the Nutrias [i 114] 
north. It is said that the waters of the first are red, those of the 
Gallinas white, and those of the Nutrias limpid. According as one 

1 Quoted by Bandelier, Final Report, pt. n, p. 60, 1892. 

34 6 AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST [N. s., 22, 1920 

or the other of these tributaries rises, the waters of the Chama 
assume a different hue. 1 " 

The Keres language is especially fond of naming places from 
cardinal directions. Among the Cochitenos, the Chama is T y ete- 
potSina, northwest river (t y ete, north; po, west; tina, river). 

CHILI [546] 

Chilf, a tiny Mexican settlement on the west side of the Chama 
just below the mouth of Ojo Caliente creek, has Tewa and Span, 
names equally obscure. The Tewa name, Tsip'apu, appears to 
contain tsi'i, flint, and pu, buttocks. Neither Mexicans nor Tewa 
know the source of the name Chili. 

CHIMAYO [22:18] 

The famous Chimay6 blankets have caused the name Chimay6 
to be circulated more widely than perhaps any other of Tewa origin. 
They are woven by Mexicans at Chimay6 hamlet in the Canada de 
Santa Cruz. The Tewa form is Tsimay6, good obsidian (tsi'i, 
obsidian; mayo, excellent). The church at the hamlet, which is, 
by the way, famous as a shrine, stands on the site of the long vanished 
pueblo of Tsimay6. 

CHIPIWI [14:39] 

Chipiwi, a ruined pueblo southwest of Puye, is in Tewa Tsipi- 
wi'i, gap where the obsidian comes out (of the ground) (tsi'i, 
obsidian; pi, to come out; wi'i, gap). 

COCHITI [28:77] 

The native Keres name is K'ot' y iti, obscure in meaning. This 
the Tewa have borrowed and folk-etymologized into K'ute'e, stone 
kiva (k'u, stone; te'e, kiva), although of course there is no stone kiva 
at Cochiti; the Jemez into K y atage, mountain-sheep pueblo (k y a, 
mountain-sheep; tage, pueblo). 


For this hamlet, north of Espanola, the Tewa and Spanish names 
mean the same: Tewa K'utepa'iwe, stone wall place (k'u, stone; 
tepa, wall; 'iwe, loc.). 

1 Bandelier, Final Report, pt. n, p. 55, 1892. 


CUNDAYO [25:8] 

The Tewa pueblo ruin Kudiyo (obscure: yo apparently aug 
mentative) lies on the mesa southwest of Cunday6 hamlet. The 
locality is several miles northeast of Nambe. 

EL RITO [4:4] 

The El Rito region is called in Tewa P'i'a n nuge, pink below 
place (p'i'a n , pink, from p'i, red, and 'a n , brown; nu'u, below; ge, 
loc.), referring to the El Rito mountains, p'i'a n p'i n r7, pink mountains 
(p'i n 77, mountain). 

EMBUDO [8:73] 

Embudo town and canyon, above San Juan, are named by the 
Tewa Pore'iwe, fishweir place (pore, fishweir; 'iwe, place). Span. 
Embudo, funnel, is a descriptive name applied to the canyon. 

ESPANOLA [14:16] 

Espanola, literally, 'Spanish town,' is called by the Tewa 
Butsa n bi'i, new town (bu'u, plaza, town; tsa n bi'i, new inan.). 

ESTACA [10:4] 

Estaca settlement is on the west side of the Rio Grande, at 
the foot of Canoa Mesa, north of San Juan. The Tewa call Estaca 
Na n mphonu'u, below where the holes are in the ground; or the place 
below, where the holes are in the ground (na n ?7, earth; pho, hole; 
nu'u, below). 


The Rito de los Frijoles is in Tewa Puqwige, where they scraped 
or wiped the bottoms (possibly of the pottery vessels) (pu, buttocks, 
bottom; qwi, to scrape, to wipe; ge, loc.). The Tewa name is 
difficult to analyse; and T y u'on y i, the Cochiti name, does not yield 
at all to analysis. 

GALISTEO [29:39] 

Galisteo pueblo ruin and modern town are the Thanuge par 
excellence of the Tewa, although this name is also applied to the 
whole region south of Santa Fe the old Tano country. Thanuge 
means live down-country place (tha, to dwell; nu'u, below; ge, loc.). 

34 8 AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST [N. s., 22, 1920 

GALLINAS [i 124] 

Tewa Dip'o, chicken creek (di, chicken; p'o, water) is perhaps a 
mere translation of the Span. name. Di in primitive Tewa meant 
turkey, but became so familiar a word when applied to the introduced 
gallinas of the Mexicans that turkey is now designated by the 
compound p'i n ndi, mountain turkey (p'i n ?7, mountain), or if you will, 
mountain chicken. Therefore an original Tewa place name dip'o 
would have become in Spanish Los Guajalotes, not Las Gallinas. 

GAVILAN [7:3] 

In the case of the name Gavilan, a Mexican settlement on Ojo 
Caliente creek, however, we have perhaps a clew to show that the 
Tewa name was. The original Span, gavilan means any kind of 
hawk; the Tewa name of the place, tugae n 'iwe, means place of a 
certain species of hawk, Falco nisus (tugae n , Falco nisus;-'iwe, loc.), 
the Tewa having no general term for hawk. The Spanish name 
therefore in this case apparently presupposes the more definite or 
peculiar Tewa name. 

GUACHE [14:11] 

Guache, a Mexican hamlet north of Espaiiola, is called in Tewa 
ma n hu n bu'u, owl dell (ma n hu n , great horned owl; bu'u, dell). 
Guache sounds indeed like a loan-word from the Tewa (cf.Guache- 
panque), but no Tewa counterpart is discoverable. 


Guachepanque, a Mexican settlement between Espanola and 
Santa Clara, is in Tewa P'otsip'a n>an ge, mud string place (p'otsi, 
mud; p'a n>an , string; ge, place). Could the original idea have been 
a string of mudpuddles? 


This Spanish name, which means gourd canyon, is not reflected 
in Tewa. To the Tewa the canyon is simply ts'iso'o, the big canyon 
(ts'i'i, canyon; so'o, big). 


Tusayan is called by the Tewa: Khoso n 'oVo n 77wi n , Hopi villages 
(Khoso n>on i7, Hopi Indian, lit., big leggings: kho, leggings; so n 'o n i7, 
big veg.\ 'o n T7wi n , pueblo). 


ISLETA [29:101] 

Tewa Tsiqwevege, kick flint place (tsi'i, flint; qweve, to kick 
along; ge, loc.), evidently means where they played the kicking-race 
(the game called gome in Span.) using a piece of obsidian. The 
native Isleta name, Siahwibak is doubtless cognate. 

JACONA [21:6] 

This settlement is a mile west of Poquaque and its name is a 
corruption of the old Tewa name of the locality: Sako n nae n , tobacco 
bank place (sa, tobacco; ko n , barranco; nse n , loc.). Jacona is also 
a sign-board station on the Denver and Rio Grande railway between 
Santa Fe and Buckman, miles to the south of the real Jacona. 

JEMEZ [27:35] 

The Tewa have a special name for Jemez, namely Wa n ?7ge, 
Jemez Indian place (Wa n ?7, Jemez Indian, unexplained; ge, loc.). 
The Jemez Indians' own name for the pueblo is He n wa, He n kwa 
or He n yo, according as various locative postfixes are used, this being 
derived from the term for Jemez person: He n , pi. He n mis. It is 
from the pi. form, meaning Jemez people, that Span. Jemez, Ker. 
Haemisi, etc., are derived. It is possible that Jemez He n , Jemez 
Indian, is cognate with Tewa Wa n tj, of same meaning. 

JEMEZ MOUNTAINS [Large Features :8] 

The rather inappropriately named Jemez mountains, the range 
that bounds the Tewa country on the west, are referred to in Tewa 
merely as Tsa n mpiye'i' 1 p'i n 77, the western mountains (tsa n mpiye 
west; 'i' 1 , gender postfix; p'i n ?7, mountain). 


Tewa T'u n mp'i n ?7, basket mountain (t'u n r/, basket; p'i n r;, moun 
tain). The peak is thought to resemble an inverted basket; hence 
both Span, and Tewa name. 

LA CUEVA [6:28] 

La Cueva, on Ojo Caliente creek above Ojo Caliente, has a 
Tewa name, Ma n hu n wiri, owl point (ma n hu n , owl; wiri, point), 
which presupposes or is derived from Ma n hu n se n nnae n [6:6], owl's 


horns (ma n hu n , owl; se n 7j, horn; nae n , loc.), the name of the great 
mountain east of La Cueva. The mountain has two peaks re 
sembling the horns of ma n hu n , great horned owl. 

LA JOYA [9:5] 

The locality of La Joya, at the confluence of Truchas creek with 
the Rio Grande, the Spanish name of which means merely 'the 
dell,' is called in Tewa Tsigubu'u, chico dell (tsigu, an unidentified 
bush sp. ; bu'u, dell). The bush is the 'chico' of the local Mexicans, 
a name which is probably a corruption of the Tewa name. 

LACUNA [29:117] 

The Tewa have a merely descriptive term meaning the same as 
the Spanish name: P'okwi n diwe, lake place (p'okwi n i, lake; 'iwe. loc). 
The Keres name, K'awaik'a, however, does not yield to etymology. 

LAKE PEAK [22:54] 

Lake Peak of the Santa Fe range including its lake, which is 
most sacred to the Tewa, is called Agataenup'i n T7 (obscure: p'i n ?7, 
mountain). This peak is the Tewa sacred mountain of the east. 

LAMY CANYON [29:37] 

Lamy and the canyon above Lamy, up which the Santa Fe 
railroad passes, are called in Tewa Pi n mp'oyehu'u, heart water 
meet canyon (pi n r?, heart; p'o, water; ye, to meet; hu'u, arroyo, 
canyon). The exact force of the name is obscure. 

NAMBE [23:5] 

Tewa Na n mbe'e, roundish earth (na n r?, earth; be'e, roundish and 
small), was probably originally applied because of a mound of 
earth. The name was transferred to the present site when the 
village was moved thither from old Na n mbe'e pueblo ruin [25:30], 
which lies in the mountains several miles northeast of the present 

NAVAWf [16:74] [17:15] 

Tewa Navawi'i means pitfall gap (nava, pitfall; wi'i, gap). 
There are two places by this name, [16:74] and [17:15], both situated 


in the Pajarito plateau, across the Rio Grande southwest of San 
Ildefonso. These pitfalls were bottle-shaped excavations in the 
tufaceous ground made in narrow gaps or on trails where game was 
wont to pass and deer and other game were caught in them. 

Ojo CALIENTE [6:24] 

Tewa P'osi-, emerald-green (absolute form of the adjective 
p'osiwi' 1 , p'osiwi n ??) is the old name of Ojo Caliente. The hotsprings 
cover the rock with an emerald green stain; hence the name. The 
pueblo ruin at Ojo Caliente, P'osi'o n ?7wi n , emerald green pueblo 
('o n ?}wi n , pueblo) was once the most important village of the Tewa 
if we can trust Tewa tradition, and it is said that at that pueblo 
P'oseyemu, the Tewa culture hero, was born of a virgin, grew up 
and at last revealed himself to the people. The old pool, over 
which the bathhouse is now built, was a most sacred place to the 
Tewa; P'oseyemu used to enter or emerge from that pool at times; 
pools and lakelets are regarded as doorways to the nether world. 

Oso CREEK [5:35] 

The Tewa name is Pheserep'o, shove stick creek (phe, stick of 
wood; sere, to shove; p'o, water). Phesere is also the name of a 
pueblo ruin [5 137] which lies on the southern bank of the creek and 
it is not unlikely that the creek takes its name from the ruin. 

OTOWI [16:105] 

One of the largest ruins of the Pajarito plateau is the P'otsuwi'i 
of the Tewa, gap where the water sinks (p'o, water; tsu, to enter; 
wi'i, gap). That the ruin lies at a gap or pass is well known; it 
will be interesting to investigate whether a stream or spring ever 
sinks into the ground anywhere at the locality at the present day 
and age. 


The great painted cave of the Pajarito plateau with its ancient 
paintings is known both to the Tewa and the Keres by purely 
descriptive names: Tewa T'ovaqwata n ' an di n , painted cave (t'- 
ovaqwa, cave; ta n ' an , painted; V, 1 gender postfix); Coch. Tset y - 
atetans-k'athet y ama, painted cave (tset y atetans, painted; k'athet y - 

35 2 AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST [N-. s., 22, 1920 

ama, cave). I fear that both these terms look equally frightful to 
the novice. There is no reason to suppose that the Tewa and 
Cochiti forms are not the pristine names of the place, despite their 
simple descriptive meaning. 

PECOS [29:33] 

Three different names for Pecos are found in the Pueblo lan 

1. The native Pecos name K'ak'ora, where the stone is on top 
(k'a, stone; k'o, to be on top; ra, loc.). It is from a Tiwa form 
cognate with this Pecos name (see Picuris Hiuqua, Isleta. Hiokuo-, 
etc., quoted under [29:33]; Tiwa hiu- = Pecos k'a, stone) that 
Cicuye, in its various spellings, is derived. 

2. Tewa Tu n i7ge, place of an unidentified bush sp. (tu n r/, 
plant sp. ; ge, loc.). 

3. Jemez P'ak y ula (obscure: p'a, water). Coch. Pseyokhona 
(obscure). It is apparently from the Ker. form that Span. Pecos 
(a pi. form used in the sing., cf. the name Taos) is derived. 


Although Span., Tewa, and Cochiti, names all mean obsidian 
mountain, informants who had visited the mountain volunteered 
that obsidian is not more plentiful there than at other mountains of 
the western range. The Tewa form is Tsip'i n Tj (tsi'i, obsidian; 
p'i n 7?, mountain); the Cochiti Hest'e'yan y ik'othe (het'e'yan y i, 
obsidian; k'othe, mountain). The peak lies south of Abiquiu and 
its truncated cone is far visible and a prominent landmark. 

PICURIS [8:88] 

The Tewa and Jemez, forms mean mountain gap, mountain 
pass: Tewa P'i n rjwi'i (p'i n 7y, mountain; wi'i, gap); Jemez P'ekwile- 
(p'e, mountain; kwile-, pass). From some such form as the Jemez 
comes Span. Picuris (originally a Span. pi. form). 


The Span, name means 'long plaza.' The Tewa 'Owi n heyi or 
Buheyi ('o n wi n , town; heyi, long; bu'u, plaza, town) doubtless 
merely follows the Spanish. 


POJOAQUE [21:29] 

Span. Pojoaque is for Tewa P'osu n ?7wae n ge, drink water place 
(p'o, water; su n r?wae n , to drink; ge, loc.). This once populous 
Tewa pueblo is now practically extinct. 

PUEBLITO [13:15] 

Pueblito is a small Indian suburb of San Juan on the west side 
of the Rio Grande. It is known to the Tewa as K'un y ce n 'o n 77wi n , 
turquoise pueblo (k'un y ae n , turquoise; 'o n rjwi n , pueblo), a name which 
happens to be applied also to San Marcos pueblo ruin, south of 
Santa Fe (see below). 


This is the high peak east of Taos. The Taos call it Ma n - 
qwaluna n (obscure), which the Tewa corrupt into Ma n qwolop'i n i7 
(p'i 11 ??, mountain). 

PUYE [14:46] 

The old Santa Clara Tewa name is Puye, apparently meaning 
'where the cottontail rabbits assemble' (pu, cottontail rabbit; ye, 
to meet, to assemble). 

Rio GRANDE [Large Features 13] 

Most of the Pueblo names for the Rio Grande mean 'big river,' 
just as the Span, name does, but this does not preclude their being 
ancient names. Thus Tewa P'osoge (p'o, water; so'o, big; ge, loc.) ; 
Jemez Ha n n y ap'akwa (ha n n y a, big; p'a, water; kwa, loc.). The 
Cochiti however call it merely Tsina, the river (tsina, river). 

SAN FELIPE [29:69] 

The Tewa name of San Felipe is Na n r?kwae n rige, sticky earth 
place (na n r7, earth; kwaeri, sticky; ge, loc.); the Jemez Kwilegi'i, 
apparently 'gap place' (kwile, gap; gi'i, loc.). The Keres has an 
unanalysable name: Katst 7 a. 

SAN GABRIEL [13:27] 

This old pueblo ruin, on the west side of the Rio Grande oppo 
site San Juan, has the Tewa name Yu n r/ge, apparently meaning 


'mockingbird place' (yu n ri, mockingbird; ge, loc.). Bandelier's 
" Yuge-uingge MI is for Yu n ?7ge'o n 77wi n ge ('o n ijwi n , pueblo; ge, loc.). 


The Tewa name is P'oqwoge, where the water cut through (p'o, 
water; qwo, to cut through; ge, loc.). But where it cut through or 
under what circumstances can never be recovered from the long 
forgotten past. Jemez P'as'ugi'i (gi'i, loc.) and Coch. P'akhwete 
are clearly forms of the same name. 

SAN JUAN [u : San Juan Pueblo] 

San Juan is known to the Tewa as 'Oke. The meaning is un 
known, but there is nothing in the phonetics of the word to prevent 
it meaning hard metate ('o, metate; ke, hard). The present 'Oke 
is the third site by that name. Old 'Oke [10:26] is a mile northwest 
of the present village. The legend goes that an Indian of 'Oke, 
while taking a twelve day ceremonial fast, became so crazed for water 
that he broke from his confinement, and rushing to a swamp near 
the river drank until he burst. The water from his body flooded 
the pueblo and destroyed it. The inhabitants fled and founded a 
second 'Oke at [11:17], m tne lowlands just north of the present 
pueblo. From there the pueblo gradually shifted to the high 
ground where it now stands. 

SAN MARCOS [29: unlocated] 

This old pueblo ruin of the Tano tribe, south of Santa Fe, the 
Tewa call K'un y ae n 'o n r]wi n , turquoise pueblo. Pueblito has this 

same name; see above. 

SANDIA [29:100] 

The Sandia name is Na n Fi n a0 (6, loc.), the Cochiti name Waetsae 
(-tsae, loc.) ; both these names are obscure. 


This mountain is perhaps the most prominent geographical 
feature of central New Mexico. It is mentioned in Pueblo myth 
ology and is the sacred mountain of the south of the Tewa, who call 

1 Bandelier, Final Report, pt. n, p. 48 et passim, 1892. 


it 'Okup'i n i7, turtle mountain ('oku, turtle; p'i n ?7, mountain). 
Jemez Kiutawe and Cochiti Tsepe are obscure. 

SANTA ANA [29:95] 

The Tewa name, Sarege, means dancing place (sare, to dance; 
ge, loc.). Jemez Tu n dagi'i and Keres Tamaya are obscure. 

SANTA CLARA [14:71] 

The Tewa name, Khap'o, is obscure in meaning (kha, corral, 
heavy, rose, spherical; p'o, water, trail). Some Indians have 
suggested pretty folk-etymologies by arbitrarily preferring certain 
meanings for kha and p'o. Jemez S y ap'agi'i is evidently the same 
word as Khap'o plus the Jemez loc. gi'i. Keres shows the form 


This loftiest peak of the Jemez range, 11,260 feet high, lies west 
of Santa Clara pueblo and has been called Santa Clara peak. 
It is the sacred mountain of the west of the Tewa, the sacred moun 
tain of the east of the Navajo. The Tewa name, Tsiku'mup'i n r7, 
almost surely means 'obsidian-covered mountain,' i.e., 'mountain 
that is covered with pieces of obsidian' (tsi'i, obsidian; ku'mu, to 
be covered; p'i n 7/, mountain). 

SANTA CRUZ [15:19] 

Santa Cruz is called in Tewa, evidently because of the much 
mentioned Canada de Santa Cruz, Kan y ae n ra'i n mbu'u, Canada 
town (kan y ae n ra, Canada, from the Span.; 'i n ?7, gender postfix; 
bu'u, town). 

SANTA FE [29:5] 

The general Tewa name for the city, also the creek and whole 
locality of Santa Fe, is 'Ogap'oge, olivella water place ('oga, olivella 
shell; p'o, water; ge, loc.). The Tewa knew the olivella in ancient 
times and prized it for making shell-money; the shells came from 
the far distant Gulf of California and the California coast, being 
bartered from tribe to tribe until they reached the Tewa, more 
than a thousand miles inland. San Juan Tewa shows a variant form 


of the name: Kwa'ap'oge, bead water place (kwa'a, any bead), 
a name which has practically the same meaning as the name current 
at the other Tewa pueblos. Cochiti Keres with characteristic 
fondness for directional naming disposes of Santa Fe as Hasok'o, 
east corner (ha, east; ok'o, corner, dell). 


This is the Povip'i n i7, flower mountain, of the Tewa (povi, 
flower; p'i n r/, mountain). Santa Fe Baldy is one of the numerous 
Cerros Pelados, bald mountains, of New Mexican Spanish 
nomenclature. Its high and bald peak is conspicuous in the Santa 
Fe range. 

SANTA FE MOUNTAINS [Large Features :i] 

The Santa Fe mountains are the Tha n mpiye'i' 1 p'i n r7, 'eastern 
mountains' of the Tewa (tha n mpiye, east; V 1 , gender postfix; 
p'i n i7, mountain). 


The old Keres name occurs in Cochiti as T y e'wa, in S. Dom. as 
K y e'wa and is obscure in etymology. It has been borrowed by 
Tewa as Tewige, by Jemez as Tawigi'i (ge, gi'i, loc.). 

SIA [29:94] 

Tewa has a descriptive term, 'Okuwarege, scattered hills place 
('oku, hill; ware, to be scattered; ge, loc.). The old and obscure 
Keres form is Tse'ya, whence Jemez Sa'yakwa (kwa, loc.). 


Tewa, Jemez, and Cochiti names are purely descriptive; there 
is no reason to suppose, however, that they are not the ancient 

1. Tewa Khae n da'ae n ndiwe, where the two mountain-lions sit 
(khae 11 ?;, mountain-lion; ra-, they two; 'ae 11 ??, to sit; 'iwe, loc.). 

2. Jemez S y at y esi n lenu n , where the mountain-lions sit ( y at y e, 
mountain-lion; i n le, to sit; nu n , loc.). 

3. Cochiti Mok'atak'owetae, where the two mountain-lions lie 
(mok'ata, mountain-lion; k'owe, to lie; tse, loc.). 


TAGS [8:45] 

The Taos name for Taos is Taa-, whence doubtless Span. Taos 
(originally a pi. form) and Tewa Thawi'i, folk-etymologized to 
sound as if it meant 'gap or pass where they live' (tha, to dwell; 
wi'i, gap). Taos Taa- belongs to a family of words which appear 
in the various Tanoan languages with the meanings to dwell, house, 

A second Taos name for Taos is Talaphai-, red-willow trees 
('ia, willow; la, wood, tree; phai, red). This has a counterpart in 
the Jem. name for Taos: Yu'la-. 

The Cochiti Keres language again characteristically disposes 
of Taos as T y et y sok'otsae, north corner place (t y et y , north; sok'o, 
corner, dell; tsae, loc.). 

TSIREGE [17:34] 

The name of this pueblo ruin, which has given the name to the 
Pajarito plateau, is in Tewa Tsirege, bird place (tsire, any bird; 
ge, loc.). Cochiti Wastet-, bird, and Span. El Pajarito, have 
equivalent meaning. 

TESUQUE [26:8] 

Tesuque is from Tewa T'athu n r?ge, dry spotted place (t'a, dry; 
thu 11 ??, spotted; ge, loc.). 


A little northeast of Tierra Amarilla town is a deposit of yellow 
earth which was known to the ancient Tewa and was used by them 
for yellowing the interior walls of houses. This earth is called in 
Tewa na n nts'eyi n (na' n rj, earth; ts'eyi' 1 , ts'eyi 11 ?;, yellow) and gives 
the name to the town and region: Na n nts'eyiwe ('iwe, loc.). 


The Tewa call Tierra Azul settlement, which lies on the south 
side of the Chama below Abiquiu, Na n ntsa n T7wae n bu'u, blue earth 
dell or town (na. n r), earth; tsa n r/W3e n , blue; bu'u, dell, also plaza, 
town). The ground is bluish or rather grayish in the locality. 
The Tewa name is probably old. 

35 8 AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST [N. s., 22, 1920 


This town, which lies west of the Rio Grande and northwest of 
Taos, is called in Taos and Tewa 'mountain-sheep rocks': Taos 
Kuwahiuna (kuwa, mountain-sheep; hiuna, stone, rock); Tewa 
Kuwak'u (kuwa, mountain-sheep; k'u, stone, rock). 


Truchas creek, eastern tributary of the Rio Grande, is called 
in Tewa: 'Omse n r;ge'i n r7hu'u (obscure: 'i n ?7, gender postfix; hu'u, 
arroyo) . 


Truchas peak of the Santa Fe range is the Tewa K'use n mp'i n T7, 
rock horn mountain (k'u, stone; se n 7j, horn; p'i n r/, mountain). 
It is curious that Bandelier, knowing nothing of the Tewa name of 
Truchas peak or its meaning, writes: "The summit of the Truchas 
is divided into sharp-pointed peaks, recalling the 'Horner Stocke' 
or 'Dents 'of the Alps." 1 

TSANKAWI [i6:y4] 

Tewa Sae n k'ewi'i, sharp cactus gap (sse n , opuntia, leaf-cactus; 
k'e, sharp; wi'i, gap) is the name of the pueblo ruin and the gap 
where it stands. Sse n k'ewi'i is in the Pajarito Plateau. 

TSAWARI [15:24] 

Tewa Ts'ae n wari, white wide gap (ts'se n , white; wori, wide gap) 
is a place in the Canada de Santa Cruz four miles above its mouth. 
A broad stratum or belt of soft whitish rock crosses the Canada 
there. On the mesa on the south side of the Canada lies 
the pueblo ruin, and the Mexican hamlet of Puebla adjoins the 
ruin on the west. This ruin was a village of the Tano Indians. 
It was built by them after they left their ancient home in the 
Galisteo region, and was abandoned in 1696 when they migrated 
to the Hopi country. The Tewa have heard that the people of 
Ts'ae n wari fled to the Hopi to escape from the tyranny of the Mexi 
cans and to help the Hopi fight the Navajo and the Mexicans. 

1 Bandelier, Final Report, pt. ir, p. 35, 1892. 


When the people left Ts'se n wari they buried a large storage-jar, 
Span, tinajon, filled with blue turquoise, red coral and other beautiful 
possessions somewhere near the pueblo. What the jar contains is 
very valuable; many have dug for it but no one has found it. 


The famous Turquoise mines south of Santa Fe are called in 
Tewa K'un y ae n 'iwe, turquoise place (k'un y ae n , turquoise ;-'iwe, loc.). 
Turquoise was dug there in pre-Columbian times by Tewa and 
Keres Indians. 

ZUNI [Unmapped] 

Tewa Sun y i- and Jem. Sanigi'i (gi'i, loc.) are perhaps from Ker. 
Sun y i. It is likely that Span. Zuni also is from the Keres.